Apollo’s Youthful Glow

Ferdowsi’s mohawk in JPL’s mission control during Curiosity’s landing. Credit: Associated Press

Since Curiosity landed on Mars last Sunday night, the internet has been buzzing not about the Sky Crane that delivered the rover to the surface but about “Mohawk Guy.” Bobak Ferdowsi is a 32-year old flight director at JPL who looks more like a rock star than an engineer. Consensus on the internet is that Ferdowsi – specifically his mohawk – has made NASA cool, young, and relevant; the most common refrain is along the lines of “this isn’t your father’s/grandfather’s NASA.” But Ferdowsi is actually older than most engineers of the Apollo era. In fact, the average age in mission control has risen since the Apollo days as engineers stay with the agency over multiple long-term programs. Though 1960s engineers may look old fashioned, your father’s or grandfather’s NASA was a fairly young one.  

When NASA was established in 1958, the singular goal was to get a man in space before the Soviet Union. The problem was, no one was entirely sure how to get a man in space. The technical challenge was something a few rocket pioneers had already worked out in theory, and putting those theories into practice with test programs was the natural next step. But running a space program, determining mission rules and safe practices, and finding men to work through all the technical problems was another issue altogether.

Flight Director Gene Kranz surrounded by the White Team. Credit: NASA/Houston Chronicle

Only a handful of men from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics moved over the NASA after its inception. And they were some of the younger ones still in their 30s; a lot of the men who had been with the NACA longer felt the space program wasn’t a sure enough deal to bet their careers on. Staffing NASA was was similarly hard. Space was new and risky, and there weren’t tons of newly minted software or spaceflight engineers PhDs looking for jobs. So NASA took guys right out of college, guys who had studied engineering but most  importantly had a strong drive and enthusiasm for this new venture into space.

A number of these right-out-of-college guys became the guys in mission control – the flight dynamics officers, retro officers, and environmental control officers. They were divided into teams, each of which was led by one seasoned flight director who made the final calls. Gene Kranz was one of the flight directors during Gemini and Apollo. His team was the White Team, which is why he always wore white vests during missions.

John Aaron during in mission control during Gemini 5. He was the original “Steely Eyed Missile Man.” 1965. Credit: NASA

Kranz described his team of controllers as an incredibly and intensely dedicated group of very young people. Working as a team they developed the discipline, morale, toughness, competence, commitment, and teamwork that kept them working as a tight unit through good missions and bad.

There were multiple flight directors each with his own team during the Gemini and Apollo programs. They rotated, each covering an eight hour shift to make sure the crew in space had a link to the ground around the clock. Apollo 11’s moon landing fell during one of Kranz’s shifts.

At 4:17 on the afternoon of July 20, 1969, the average age of the men listening anxiously in mission control as Neil Armstrong fought to land the lunar module before running out of fuel was just 26 years old. Kranz has described himself as the old guy in the room. He was 35 that day.

On the right, Armstrong is seated with Conrad standing behind him. Dick Gordon is in the black hat and Dave Scott in the white. Armstrong and Scott were the prime crew of Gemini 8 with Conrad and Gordon their respective backups. This photo has Conrad written all over it. 1966. Credit: NASA

Four months later, Flight Director Gerry Griffin was 35 and overseeing his Gold Team during Apollo 12′s launch when the Saturn V was struck twice by lightning. It took out the main electrical systems, threatening to cancel the mission less than two minutes after launch. But 24-year-old John Aaron came to the rescue, remembering the fix from an old mission simulation.

The astronauts were the actual “old” guys on these missions. Neil Armstrong was less than two weeks away from his 39th birthday when he landed on the Moon, definitely not old by any standard. Apollo 12 Commander Pete Conrad was 39 when he landed in the Oceans of Storms in November 1969.

Author’s note: There’s a lot to be said for experience in space leading to success, but I think Apollo goes to show that there’s a lot more to be said for young and creative minds given free reign to work a problem, making up solutions as problems arise. The Sky Crane took nine years from inception to landing and that’s with data from three successful rovers, three successful landers, and a slew of flybys and orbital missions. NASA was thinking idly about the Moon in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but when Kennedy promised the nation a Moon landing within the decade in 1961 the agency had nothing concrete to go with – no lunar-capable rockets, no lunar spacecraft or spacecraft configuration… the mission mode of lunar orbit rendezvous (which meant Apollo would use a command and service module and a separate lunar module) wasn’t finalized until 1962. These young guys put a lot on the line to go from suborbital missions to Moon landing in 8 years and 2 months. I just think this is an extremely important perspective to bear in mind if you’re going to talk about “old” vs. “new” NASA. 

Comments

  1. David Shomper says

    Re: photo caption: Armstrong and SCOTT were the prime crew for GT-8. It would be hard for Gordon to be his own backup.

  2. Jasper says

    Great article! It hits the nail right on the head. Those people were really pioneering with science and technology. Don’t you think one of the reasons the space program in the 50′s and 60′s was more exciting because of these young people? In those space race years, it almost seemed everything was possible, if you just gave it a try. They dared to take risks and to go along with new ideas. I have always wondered about why NASA changed into this slow operating top heavy “moloch” it is today. It almost looks as if they did not learn that having young people at responsible places might make a big difference. It sometimes is a bit hard to imagine someone adequately solving a “1202 alarm” or “SCE to AUX” situation nowadays.

    Guys like Mohawk Guy in the trenches of JPL’s mission control room was a nice change of view indeed. Just like the scenes at SpaceX’s mission control.
    I really hope they continue to hire young people with fresh ideas and guts to take risks while discovering our solar system.

  3. CC says

    It is not quite true to say there were “no rockets” in 1961 at the moment of Kennedy’s announcement. Saturn was certainly under development. Just not Saturn V. The first Saturn was launched in ’61, I think. I could be wrong about that. The effort to get to the moon did not spring out of nothing the day after Kennedy spoke to Congress or at Rice. Or whatever. It is not much of a point, admittedly. But it is a point.

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